Haunted Yorkshire

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Conspiracy Theories

There are many conspiracy theories, Haunted Yorkshire have listed some of these below!


Just scroll down the page for the one you require to view. 

Hitler and the Occult
JFK Assassination
Men in black
Philadelphia Experiment
Subliminal Messages
Tesla's "Death Ray" machine
The project 'Blue Book'








Conspiracy theory is a term that originally was a neutral descriptor for any conspiracy claim. However, it has come to almost exclusively refer to any theory which explains a historical or current event as the result of a secret plot by usually powerful conspirators, such as a "secret team" or "shadow government", rather than broad social forces and large structures of human collectives.


The “War on Terror” is said to have begun on September 11, 2001.

But is it possible that the war began before this date? Some people point to U.S. government complicity in the events of 9/11, either by not doing enough to prevent it, or—more ominously—by actively planning for it. Whatever the truth may be, there is plenty of conjecture that what happened on that day doesn’t add up to the popular version of the events. What is not in dispute is that public support for the War on Terror was far greater after these attacks than it would have been on September 10, 2001. Could it be that the attacks were allowed to happen to create public clamor for a war that would otherwise have been inconceivable? Many people have pointed to the possibility that 9/11 was a clone of Pearl Harbor, an attack on the U.S. that was deliberately allowed to take place in order to further the war aims of a president.

But a more sinister comparison has been made by those skeptical of the motives of the Bush administration. They claim that what happened was more akin to Adolf Hitler’s burning of the Reichstag, the German Republic’s parliament, on February 27, 1933. Hitler blamed the fire on Communists plotting against the state. But historians widely accept the view that a member of the Prussian interior ministry set fire to the building deliberately, on Hitler’s orders. Immediately after the fire Hitler announced an emergency decree which suspended the normal civilian rights and liberties of citizens and gave the government enormous authority to impose order.

This was the beginning of the end for democratic values and the rise of Nazi dictatorship. On October 3, 2001 Congress approved Bush’s Patriot Act, a similar bill which reduced the civil liberties of Americans and allowed the detention without trial of anyone the government deemed a potential “security threat.” Furthermore, the public and political pressure for retaliation for the attacks was intense, and neatly tied into the agenda of the “Project for a New American Century.” This was a strategic document put forward by a group of neoconservatives in September 2000 outlining a new strategy for American global dominance in the twenty-first century. This think tank included Dick Cheney, the vice president; Donald Rumsfeld, secretary of defense; Paul Wolfowitz, his deputy; Jeb Bush, brother of George and governor of Florida; and Lewis Libby, the leader of Bush’s 2000 election campaign team now working in the White House.

The most intriguing part of the document concerns the readjustment of American forces across the globe. The report states that only an incremental approach can be taken to this radical restructuring owing to political and public constraints, unless there was “some catastrophic and catalyzing event like a new Pearl Harbor.” Despite all this, however, there is still the question of how such an elaborate attack could have been prepared and executed by the government and its agencies without the media becoming deeply suspicious. The most likely explanation is that the attacks were planned by Osama bin Laden and Al Qaeda but that U.S. intelligence agencies did not act upon the information they received to adequately prevent them.

Evidence of their failure, whether deliberate or through incompetence, has been widespread following Congressional investigations but without any smoking gun. Furthermore, the CIA and New York City counterterrorism offices were based in Building 7 of the World Trade Center and were therefore destroyed, along with any potentially incriminating evidence. The suspicions about intelligence are just part of the growing mistrust about the events that day, which reverberated right around the world. On the day of the attacks geological surveys in NewYork recorded the greatest amount of seismic activity as occurring immediately before the Twin Towers collapsed, and not when they hit the ground.

This has led many people to the conclusion that the towers were blown up with explosives underneath the building and not by the enormous volume of fuel that ignited after the two airliners exploded; a belief reinforced by the way the towers imploded inwards instead of collapsing sideways.

The evidence at the Pentagon also raises profound questions. Why was the Pentagon hit on the one side of the building that happened to be empty on the day of the attacks owing to refurbishment? Why was there no visible evidence of a destroyed airliner among the debris? Why were no fighter jets scrambled to intercept the hijacked aircraft until after the third plane had hit the Pentagon, despite it being a legal requirement in the U.S. for fighter jets to be scrambled whenever a commercial airliner veers significantly off its flight path? How was so much information known about the hijackers and released to the media by the FBI so soon after the attacks, including details on a passport miraculously found among the rubble of the Twin Towers?

These question marks raise serious doubts about the official version of what happened on September 11. Many are cynical of the report published only a year prior to that date; a report which would revolutionize America’s role in the world toward ultimate military, political and social hegemony, but one which would require a catastrophic event. These cynics cannot accept that the occurrence of just such an event can be no more than coincidence. Can it also be mere coincidence that those who authored the report are responsible for failing to prevent the attack and for coordinating their desired global response?

Hitler and the Occult

The Nazi party grew out of several occult groups that sprung up in the late 19th century as a reaction to the advanced materialism and technology of the era.
These groups spoke of the coming of a new Messiah that would save Germany[]. Young Adolf Hitler developed the notion that perhaps he was the chosen one to save the German people.
The political parties created in the wake of the country's defeat in World War I combined nationalistic sentiment and occultist practices to forge an image of a superior German people. Hitler's imprisonment after the failed 1923 Munich Beer Hall Putsch would make him a national hero for his defense of a strong German state, convincing him that he was the Messiah who could save Germany.

Hitler appropriated Christian religious symbols such as the Spear of Destiny and the Holy Grail for his own purposes. He adopted the swastika from Hinduism among many other Sanskrit terms and symbols. The symbol of the Swastika represents the Sun, and also the Wheel of Life turning. The original symbol turns clockwise. The Nazi one turns backwards. The four arms of the original Swastika represent the Four Vedas. The swastika is also the symbol for peace and harmony, as in Buddhism, Jainism and Taoism. It decorates most Hindu homes and temples. Adolf Hitler's rise was the product of forces and events connecting him, his associates and the occult. Was Hitler influenced by supernatural ideas or was he just the embodiment of pure hate and evil? Examine the importance of symbols of the occult, religion and astrology to Hitler's concept of world domination.

In the conclusion, after the author Dusty Sklar has pointed out that Hitler's suicide happened at the night of April 30/May 1, which is Walpurgis Night, the narrator continues: "With Hitler gone, it was as if a spell had been broken". Then Joachim von Ribbentrop's infamous statement of his continued subservience to Hitler at the Nuremberg Trials is taken as final evidence of Hitler's "occult power": ("Even with all I know, if in this cell Hitler should come to me and say 'Do this!', I would still do it.").

JFK Assassination

Ever since November 1963 the motives for the assassination of John F. Kennedy have been the subject of wild speculation. What is clear is that the young President was about to steer his own course strongly opposed to the mighty political and financial interest of the establishment. He was not a good “collaborator”, and one of the reasons for the murder was the sacking of the overly powerful CIA chief Allen Dulles – after the fiasco at the Bay of Pigs in April 1961, shortly after he took on the job. Furthermore, he prepared to call back some U.S. advisors from Vietnam. This order was issued in October 1963. Another thorn in the flesh of the Illuminati was the plan to curb CIA military activities in Southeast Asia. On July 18, 1963 he had told Congress that he wanted to implement certain measures to remedy the balance of payments deficit of the U.S. He wanted to support exports of industrial goods and an interest balancing tax on foreign accounts of American citizens. On capital invested abroad up to 15% tax would have to be paid. That the international bankers didn’t want to put up with that is obvious. Kennedy would have been the right man as the people’s representative! But to find an even more important reason we have to leave politics for a moment. It concerns the Roswell Incident.

Conspiracy theorists state that the government had JFK assassinated in an effort to destroy the dream of space travel. Since the Roswell incident they had remained very mysterious about the truth of that day’s events, thereby enjoying a measure of power over an unwittingly ignorant and vulnerable public. It follows, then, that the government would not be keen for society to learn the truth as a result of space travel, as whatever secret they had been harbouring could finally be exposed.

On July 22, 1947 a “non-terrestrial” flying machine had crashed at Roswell, New Mexico. There were ninety-two witnesses, thirty-five of which were Air Force personnel, and four humanoid beings were found. The next space vehicle was found on February 13, 1948 near Aztec, New Mexico, followed on March 25 by a further crash in the same area, at Heart Canyon. This disk had a diameter of thirty-three meters, was made from an unknown metal and was occupied by sixteen beings, about 120 cm high and all dead. Another crash happened near Roswell in 1949, and here one being survived.

An Air Force officer was ordered to bring him to Los Alamos, at that time the best-guarded institution of the U.S. Armed Forces. The being was described as a reptiloid humanoid with certain insectoid characteristics. He was simple called EBE (Extraterrestrial Biological Entity). He came from a double-star system, that their planet was now a desert planet, that their sun was dying and that they had underground facilities in several countries of the world. EBE taught the young colonel who looked after him about reincarnation, that the soul lives on and that this was the law of the Universe. All this was recorded and stored under the code-name YELLOW BOOK. Under the project SIGMA they tried to contact EBE’s race, but without success.

At the end of 1951 EBE became very ill. Since his biological body functions were chlorophyll-based, the botanist Dr. Guillermo Mendoza was called in to treat EBE. EBE stayed in Los Alamos until June 18, 1952 when he died for “unknown reasons”. It is said that the colonel looking after him cried when he died. He apparently had loved him like a child. Under the project ROBERTSON PANEL this event was later filmed as “ET” to accustom the public slowly to reality. On December 6, 1950 a thirty-meter saucer crashed near Laredo, Texas. In the debris the charred remains of a being of about 130 cm in height with a very large head was found. When the photographs were released, this event caused quite a stir.

On May 20, 1953 a further saucer of only ten meters across was recovered in Kingman, Arizona. Here there were four dead beings who were brought like all the others to the Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Hangar 18. As the Americans like to say: Reality is sometimes stranger than fiction. After the first crash already several secret organizations were founded to deal with the presence of UFOs. The most important one was the Operation Majestic 12 that was founded on September 24, 1947, by President Harry Solomon Truman and under which all the other projects ran (MAJESTY is the code name for the President). Among its twelve members were Dr. Vanevar Bush, the scientific advisor of the President, Defense Secretary Forrestal and later also Nelson Rockefeller, Allen Dulles, Head of the CIA, and J. Edgar Hoover, Head of the FBI. The rest were all members of the CFR. All twelve were also members of the Jason Society or Jason Scholars, the elite from the Skull & Bones order. The group’s headquarters in Maryland is only accessible by air and is called the “Country club” by insiders.

Concrete proof exists though of a meeting by President Eisenhower. Michael Hesemann writes (in UFOs-Die Kontakte):

“From the reports by the contactees we learn that since their massed appearance over Washington in the summer of 1952 the extra-terrestrials had made contact with the U.S. Government…Some contactees like George van Tassel were also charged with sending special communiqués to the president. At that time – after the election in autumn 1952 – this was, from January 1953 onwards, General Dwight D. Eisenhower had already heard of Roswell, Aztec and Laredo UFO crashes during his service. After his election on November 18, 1952 he received a report by the ‘Majestic 12’ committee that had been charged with the investigation of the retrieved UFO wrecks by his predecessor Truman. The committee recommended to the President strict secrecy for reasons of ‘national security’. The place where Eisenhower was to make contact was the Edwards (MUROC) Air Force Base in California.

This had been the area for UFO demonstrations for months and years before:



August 10, 1950: Lt. Robert C. Wykoff, physicist with the Navy, observed with the telescope a large disk-shaped object as it maneuvered near Edwards.

September 30, 1952: Air photographer Dick Beemer and two other witnesses observed two spherical, slightly flattened objects maneuvering over Edwards.”

On February 20,1954 the time had come. This event has been confirmed by films and several witnesses among them Geralt Light of the mighty media group CBS, the Earl of Clancerty, member of the House of Lords, the former secret service man, William Cooper, Paul Solomon of the Air Force and many others who at that time had been stationed at Edwards/MURDOC. Apparently on this day something happened that had all officers including the commander run to the observation tower. From there they saw a disk with a diameter between sixty and one hundred meters that hovered directly above the runway. The object was observed for hours, literally until the last man on the base knew about it. The disk flew patterns that defied all laws of physics, up and down, from one side to the other, right angles, etc. Later there were five objects, three disk-shaped and two cigar-shaped.

Eisenhower who at that time was resting at Palm Springs was fetched. The air base personnel and Eisenhower then watched as a small group of the occupants stepped out and came toward them. They looked like human beings, had about the same height, were blond and spoke English. They offered help in the spiritual development of humanity. Their main condition was the destruction of all nuclear arms. They were not prepared to share their technology with us since spiritually we were not even ready to deal responsibly with the technology we already had. They believed that we would use any new technology only to destroy each other. This race declared that we were on the way to self-destruction and that we had to stop killing each other, polluting the Earth, exploiting the natural resources and that we should live in harmony with Creation. Most importantly we had to understand and to learn to see ourselves as citizens of a planetary family and that we were committed and should start behaving as members of that family. We would have to quickly let go of the idea that we could do as we pleased. Only then could we start to behave like citizens of a planetary system and start relations with them. They are part of the same family and should be treated accordingly, and that is also how we should see the people of our Earth.

As soon as we would have learned to interact peacefully with other nations, we could start interplanetary relations. This was met with skepticism, especially the demand for nuclear disarmament. One didn't believe that disarmament was in the interest of the U.S. and feared to stand defenceless before the extra-terrestrials.

The offer was refused! The aliens then declared that they would continue to contact individuals until the humans were used to their presence. Then the extra-terrestrials showed to the President , who stood paralysed, and his entourage their authoritative technical possibilities. They showed the President their craft and proved that they could make themselves invisible. This made Eisenhower fell most uncomfortable, because although they knew that they were still there, they couldn't be seen. Then the aliens boarded their ships and took off. This landing was also confirmed by the U.S. astronaut Gordon Cooper who recalls that during his service a film was shown that showed the landing of a UFO on a California air force base in the Fifties.

The whole story in detail, with answers to every why and how-come is found in Michael Hesemann’s UFOs Die Beweise (the proofs) and UFOs-Die Kontakete (the contacts). He painstakingly collected the data from more than fifty books, especially from the U.S., and he added many pictures of very good quality. UFOs- Die Beweise contains the secret CIA documents that were released after thirty years due to the “Freedom of Information Act”. There were more contacts with governments, but one should read it all in one go to get an overview of the many facets of the subject of UFOs. There are also videos available that among other things show the landing in 1964 on the Holloman Air Force Base.

Now back to Kennedy. After he became President and was told about the retrieved UFOs and the secret projects that also contained the study of the survivors, he wanted to make this information public. Defence Secretary Forrestal, who was a Majestic 12 member, had tried to do just that, too, and on May 22, 1949 he was thrown out of his hospital room window with a bed sheet tied around his neck. Kennedy fared no better. He was murdered at Dallas on November 22, 1963.

The first shot actually did come from the roof of the storehouse, but it was not lethal. The killing shot came from the driver of the President’s limousine. A CIA agent who shot Kennedy in the head with a special weapon developed by the CIA. If we look at the original film of the assassination in slow motion and watch the driver, then we can clearly see that he turns around with a gun in his hand, shoots, and the back of Kennedy’s head bursts.

The films shown in most Western countries have the driver cut out. On November 21, 1993, the German TV channel ARD sought in its program Spiegel-TV in a ridiculous way to tell the viewers that there was no CIA involvement in the assassination, at almost the same time RTL showed a program claiming the opposite. Apart from the differing commentaries both programs showed the film only once full-frame, afterwards the driver was again cut out. But in the full-frame version the shooting driver and the gun were clearly visible to those who knew where to look. John Lear, the son of the founder and today owner of Lear Aircraft and once decorated as the best pilot of the U.S. Air Force (seventeen world records), found three original films, e.g. in Japan, that he had computer analyzed and checked for authenticity. Both he and William Cooper, former member of Naval Intelligence and author of the book Behold a Pale Horse, today give lectures in the U.S., and they supply the original films, too (address in the list of literature). Because of this film William Cooper lost one leg when the CIA tried to assassinate him. Japanese television later showed the original footage several times during the main news.

The computer analysis also allowed to recognize the weapon as a special calibre developed by the CIA. The bullet, too, was a CIA special bullet that only exploded after entering the body and thus annihilated Kennedy’s brain. The assassination was prepared by the CIA members Orlando Bosch, E. Howard Hunt, Frank Sturgis and Jack Rubinstein (aka Jack Ruby) for whose collaboration the CIA paid his huge gambling debts. Lee Harvey Oswald had also been a CIA member, but at the time of the assassination he had been working for Jack Ruby. His death had been planned. Jack Ruby shot Oswald before he could prove his innocence. Thus they had a culprit who could no longer prove the truth.

The CIA hated Kennedy. In its eyes he was responsible that neither the Vietnam, the Cuban nor the UFO projects went the way the CIA wanted. When the news about Kennedy’s death broke, writes a CIA operative who had also been involved in the “Bay of Pigs” operation, all the people in his department rose and applauded. Many of these facts had been uncovered during the special hearings by the committee for assassination, but according to U.S. security law they remain secret until 2029. After the hearings the CIA was prohibited from undertaking any undercover operations within the U.S. It is hard to believe that they ever followed that order. All the witnesses of the conspiracy were either killed or died of fast-growing cancer that they had injected – the deadly marksman in the car three weeks after the deed, for example.

The official story of the Kennedy assassination according to the report by the Warren Commission was that Lee Harvey Oswald had been the only person responsible, and it was printed nine hours later in all newspapers of the U.S. The true story of the CIA Committee of 300 conspiracy was never told. And once again a whole nation is misinformed for decades until a brave researcher takes the trouble to dig deep.

His brother, Robert F. Kennedy who stood also in the way of the Illuminati had to die on June 5, 1968, as he was about to win the presidential elections. In this case the single attacker was Sirhan Sirhan. He was under the influence of a drug that was developed by the CIA especially for cases like this. To be sure that Sirhan Sirhan was not going to miss, one of the bodyguards of Howard Hughes fired an “extra bullet” that later was found in Kennedy’s head. As the examining magistrate found, the ballistic tests showed that the mouth of the weapon had to have been about five to eight centimetres from Kennedy’s head, Sirhan’s weapon though was never nearer than thirty centimetres. This story, too, was kept from the public.

The independent publications with the CFR and the Skull & Bones order contained this information. As section 12 of the Protocols says, persons who oppose the “plan” should be brought nearer to death.

Men in Black

The first known encounter with two ‘Men in Black’ happened in 1947. Two US harbour patrolmen, Harold A. Dahl and Fred L. Crisman, had spotted a UFO over the water of Puget Sound, Washington. Dahl said that a man dressed in black visited him shortly after the sighting and forcefully advised him not to discuss the incident further. A similar meeting happened to Carlo Rossi, from the area near San Pietro a Vico in Italy. In the early hours of 25th July, 1952, Rossi was fishing in the River Serchio when he witnessed a strange circular craft hovering over the river. Rossi hid, watching the craft as it passed over him, and then sped away. In the following weeks he told no-one about what he had seen, but on 15th September he found a stranger dressed in a dark blue suit waiting for him by the river. The stranger spoke Italian, but with an odd Scandinavian accent, and had very strange facial features.

The man forcefully asked Rossi about what he had seen, but Rossi denied everything. Ever since organized flying saucer research began in the early 1950s, a number of UFO investigators have claimed that they have suffered personal harassment, unusual accidents, and even mysterious deaths due to the visitations of three mysterious men in black. In some cases, according to UFO researchers, sinister voices whispered threats over the telephone and warned them to terminate specific investigations. By the mid-1960s, percipients of alleged UFO activity continued to protest that they had been visited by ominous strangers who made it clear that their orders to remain silent about what they had seen would be violently enforced. Official disclaimers by the U.S. Air Force, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) have served only to intensify the mystery of the bizarre incidents that have instilled fear among those who witnessed flying saucer phenomena and have prompted accusations of government cover-ups by members of civilian research groups for over 50 years.

The legend of the three Men in Black, the MIB, began in September 1953 when Albert K. Bender, who had organized the International Flying Saucer Bureau, received certain data that he felt provided the missing pieces concerning the origin of flying saucers. Bender wrote down his theory and sent it off to a friend he felt he could trust. When the three men appeared at Bender’s door, one of them held that letter in his hand. The three Men in Black told Bender that among the many researchers he had been the one to stumble upon the correct answer to the flying-saucer enigma. Then they filled him in on the details. Bender became ill. He was unable to eat for three days. Bender went on to say that when people found out the truth about flying saucers there would be dramatic changes in all things. Science, especially, would suffer a major blow. Political structures would topple.

Mass confusion would reign. In 1962, Bender decided that he would at last tell his story to the world in Flying Saucers and the Three Men. This perplexing volume served only to confuse serious researchers, as it told of Bender’s astral projection to a secret underground saucer base in Antarctica that was manned by male, female, and bisexual creatures. Many questions remained to plague UFO investigators. Were Bender’s experiences really of a psychic nature? Was his book deliberately contrived to hide the true nature of his silencing? Had the whole experience been clothed in an extended metaphor that might yield certain dues to the perceptive researcher?

In the opinion of many UFO investigators, the Men in Black are representatives of an organization on the planet Earth, but they are not from any known bureau in the U.S. government. According to some researchers, both these men and the UFOs come from some civilization that has flourished in a remote area of Earth, such as the Amazon, the North Gobi Desert, or the Himalaya Mountains. Within a few months after Bender had been silenced, Edgar R. Jarrold, organizer of the Australian Flying Saucer Bureau, and Harold H. Fulton, head of Civilian Saucer Investigation of New Zealand, received visits from mysterious strangers and subsequently disbanded their organizations.

A bizarre Men in Black case happened on 18th May 1968, when UFO witnesses started contacting researchers. George Smyth was one of those who had seen a strange object in the skies above Elizabeth, New Jersey, USA. He began to receive visits from strange men, and received phone calls warning him not to attend upcoming UFO conventions or speak to independent investigators. A bizarre aspect of this case was that the three visitors Smyth described were apparently the men he had been told to avoid – the UFO enthusiasts John Keel, Gray Barker and James Moseley. What made this even more odd was that these three men were actually miles away from Smyth’s house at the time of the visits. Other UFO investigators in the area, John Robinson and his wife Mary, also noticed strange things happening to them. A large dark car seemed to be parked outside their house in New Jersey City, with a strange man inside constantly watching them. One day Mary went out and noticed their friend James Moseley making a spectacle of himself further up the street. She thought this was very strange, but went inside to make a drink for him, thinking he was there to visit them. But then the phone rang. To her surprise it was Moseley, not on a street corner in New Jersey City, but at his home in Manhattan.

In recent years, more incidents have been reported. On 15th January 1997 William Shearer experienced a UFO encounter in Essex, southern England. Four days later he had a knock at the door and outside stood two strange men, dressed in dark grey suits and long coats. One man stood on guard by a large imposing saloon car, the other stood at Shearer’s threshold. This man was said to be very tall, deathly pale but with bright red lips, and spoke in a very unusual, almost automated, way. He repeatedly asked to come in but Shearer refused and the men finally said they would come back later.

A month later, Shearer was at work when two men appeared. One was the visitor who had stood by the car at the house call, the other was a different man. They were both dressed in suits with hats, and they told him they wanted to talk about his UFO experience. They gave him exact details of the incident, details that Shearer felt only he should know, and were forceful in their requests. Shearer asked to see their ID, but the men just kept repeating a formulaic set of questions. In the end, Shearer refused to let them into his place of work and the two men disappeared. However, since then, he has reported blatant tapping activity when using his telephone. John H. Stuart, a New Zealander, picked up a piece of metal that had fallen from a UFO during a close sighting in February 1955.

The next night he received a visit from a man dressed in black who announced that he had more right than Stuart did to the piece of grey-white metal. The man in black told Stuart a lot about flying saucers and left him feeling frightened. “I have a feeling that some day there will come a slow knocking at my own door,” Gray Barker (1925– ) wrote in They Knew Too Much About Flying Saucers (1956). “They will be at your door, too, unless we all get wise and find out who the three men really are.” UFO and paranormal investigator John A. Keel’s (1930– ) pursuit of the flying saucer silencers in the late 1960s led him to uncover some extreme cases of personal abuse in which certain contactees or investigators had been kidnapped by three men in a black car. Keel noted that it was nearly always three men who subjected the victims to some sort of brainwashing technique that left them in a state of nausea, mental confusion, or even amnesia lasting for several days.

The investigation of many of these cases never get beyond local police departments, Keel found. Neither the FBI nor any other central government agency was engaged in collecting information on such stories of mistreatment by the mysterious three Men in Black. Responding to accusations from civilian researchers who demanded an investigation and who suggested that the air force was somehow behind such silencings, Colonel George P. Freeman, Pentagon spokesman for Project Blue Book, was quoted as saying that the three Men in Black were not connected with the air force in any way. Nor would any other United States security group claim them. It has never been within the line of duty of any government agency to threaten private citizens or to enter their home without a search warrant. No government agent is empowered to demand surrender of private property by any law-abiding citizen. Freeman went on to say that by posing as air force officers and government agents, the silencers were committing a federal offense.

Broadcaster Frank Edwards (1908–1967), who became well known for his best-selling Flying Saucers—Serious Business (1966), made much of what he believed to be an official plot that had been set to silence him. Before becoming interested in UFOs, Edwards had been conducting a highly successful radio show sponsored by the American Federation of Labour (AFL). He was warned to abandon the subject of flying saucers, and when Edwards persisted, he was given his walking papers. In spite of thousands of letters protesting the firing of Edwards and the silencing of his UFO reports, his ex-sponsor stood firm. When reporters asked George Meany, president of the AFL, why Edwards had been dropped, Meany answered that it was because he had talked too much about flying saucers. Edwards claimed that he later learned that his constant mention of UFOs had been irritating to the Defence Department and that the department had brought pressure to bear on the AFL.

Edwards was only temporarily silenced, and he soon had in syndication a radio show that dealt almost exclusively with flying saucers and other strange phenomena. But his sudden death on June 24, 1967, the 20-year anniversary of Kenneth Arnold’s sighting of the flying saucers near Mt. Rainier, Washington, sparked immediate concern among UFO researchers that Edwards had been silenced for good. And it certainly added to the paranoia that he had died on the day before he was scheduled to address the Congress of Scientific Ufologists assembled at the Hotel Commodore in New York City.

Stories of the Men in Black have continued unabated since their origin in the early 1950s. In 1997, the motion picture Men in Black starring Tommy Lee Jones and Will Smith became a smash box office hit by portraying the sinister “three men” as two men who worked for a secret government agency that patrolled the action of aliens living secretly on Earth. The concept that originated in fear and distrust of the government or of some nefarious secret organization of aliens or agents was played for laughs, and the motion picture used state-of-the-art special effects to create astonishing outer space creatures. A sequel to the successful film was released in 2002, and the legend of the frightening Men in Black knocking at the doors of those who had witnessed UFO activity to threaten and to silence them continued to be seen as a vehicle for comedy.

If the UFO silencers are a hoax, no one has yet answered who is perpetrating it and why. Whoever comprises this persistent silence group either knows, or gives the impression of knowing, a great deal more about the universe than the current scientific community does. Although no one can be absolutely certain, one theory is that these strange visitors are UFO investigators who belong to a research group that has standardised their visiting uniform.

Others say they are actually aliens trying to cover their tracks. Sceptics believe they are pranksters or simply figments of witness’s imaginations. In most cases, they claim to be from the CIA or intelligence agencies, and there is a theory that these organisations have been happy to assume such identities in recent years as a readymade method of intimidation. The other option is, of course, that they are from a secret department of government intelligence, trying to control UFO and alien related sightings.

But many researchers of UFO phenomena continue to believe that the Men in Black are agents from another world who labour to spread confusion and fear among Earth’s serious UFO investigators and those witnesses of UFO activity. Others maintain that in spite of official denials, the Men in Black are agents from a top-secret U.S. government agency, which knows the answer to the flying saucer enigma and has been commissioned to keep the truth from the American public. Still others claim that they are agents from another terrestrial political system that endeavours to guard its secret of advanced technology just a bit longer.

Philadelphia Experiment

The "Philadelphia Experiment" is the name that has commonly been given to an alleged Top-Secret experiment conducted by the United States Navy in 1943 in which the Destroyer Escort U.S.S. Eldridge, outfitted with several tons of specialized electronics equipment capable of creating a tremendous pulsating magnetic field around itself, was first made invisible and then transported, in a matter of moments, from the Philadelphia Navy Yard, to the Norfolk Docks and back again, a total distance of over 400 miles (640 kilometres). While the experiment succeeded in causing the Eldridge to become invisible, a number of the crew burst into flames in spontaneous human combustion, and several others later lapsed into invisibility in front of their families— and, in one case, before the patrons of a crowded bar. Over half the officers and crew members had to be committed to psychiatric wards for the rest of their lives as a result of the fantastic experiment.

The United States government for the last 43 years has officially denied that this experiment ever took place. In any case, the story begins with Morris Ketchum Jessup, an astronomy and mathematics Professor at the University of Michigan. Morris Ketchum Jessup was born in Rockville, Indiana, March 20, 1900 and named after his uncle, a railroad and financial baron (who also had a Cape in the northernmost tip of Greenland named after him). In the late 1920s while a Doctorate student at the University of Michigan, the young Jessup's research was responsible for the discovery of many physical double stars now catalogued by the Royal Astronomical Society of London. While the country was in the firm grip of the Depression and jobs were hard to find, Jessup, like so many other highly technical people, took work wherever he could.


He was first assigned by the U.S. Department of Agriculture to go to the Amazon to study sources of crude rubber. From there he became a photographer on an archaeological expedition to the Mayan ruins in Central America. Then Jessup went to Peru to study pre-lncan culture. It was in Peru that Jessup, after studying these massive ruins with their incredible exactness and implicit construction skills, speculated that they could have been built only with the aid of levitating devices from sky ships of some sort. This theory places Jessup among the first of modern scientists to believe in the "Ancient Astronauts" theory. This view, naturally, did not put him in high regard among his employers and colleagues, and he was soon on his own. Jessup continued his research at his own expense. He found some very interesting craters in Mexico that were similar in structure and type to the mysterious craters on the Moon. Further research disclosed that the United States Air Force had highly classified photos of the Mexican craters. Running out of money, Jessup returned to the U.S. in 1954 to raise funds for further research.

When the flying-saucer craze ran rampant in the late 1940s and early 1950s, Jessup became interested, first casually, and then quite seriously. His major focus was the possible propulsion power for these sky ships. From what he had learned in Central America, Mexico, and Peru, Jessup was convinced that UFOs were a real possibility, and he had enough foundation to prove it. Jessup moved to Washington, D.C. and devoted the next year to extensive research. On January 13, 1955, he gave his publisher the completed manuscript of his book, The Case for the UFO. The book sold well enough such that in the fall of 1955 Bantam issued a paperback edition. Shortly after this book was published, Jessup received a most unusual letter. It was written in several different colours of ink and the spelling and punctuation were most odd. The subject of the letter, however, was even stranger than its grammatical oddities. The correspondent, a Mr. Allende (who signed his letters "Carl Allen") was markedly interested in Jessups' ideas about levitation and went to great lengths to agree with Jessups' theory-—that many of our megaliths were built using the technique of levitation.

In fact, he assured Jessup that levitation was not only scientifically possible but was commonplace on Earth in our recent past. Jessup was so fascinated by the style of the letter and the agreement with his own theory that he wrote back to Allende asking for more details. These events concurred with several other pressing matters. At this time Jessup was doing the publicity and lecture circuit and was also preparing his second book, The UFO and the Bible. He soon forgot about the mysterious letter. In late July or early August a copy of The Case for the UFO arrived at the Office of Naval Research (O.N.R.).

However, this was not an ordinary copy. It had been sent to Admiral N. Furth in a manila envelope and across the front of it had been scribbled "Happy Easter". The book itself was well worn and contained handwritten comments at the top, bottom and margins of the pages. The comments were written in three different colors of ink as if the book had been passed back and forth between three people. The comments suggested a knowledge of UFOs, their method of propulsion, and the origin and background of the beings operating them. The book at that time fell into the possession of Major Darrell L. Ritter (U.S.M.C. Aeronautical Project Officer at O.N.R.) who took a great interest in these comments. It was obvious that a great deal of time and effort had been put into this book. Major Ritter was also aware of the government's momentary interest in anti-gravity research, and felt that the comments about undersea cities built by two groups of extra-terrestrials (called the LMs and SMs) were quite intriguing.

There were explanations for mysterious ship and plane disappearances in the Bermuda Triangle. Also included was an extensive commentary on the origins of odd storms and clouds, of objects falling from the sky, of strange marks and footprints that Jessup had written about, and many odd words (such as: "mothership", "home ship", "dead ship", "great ark", "great bombardment", "great return", "great war", "little men", "force fields", "deep freeze", "measure markers", "scout ships", "magnetic fields", "gravity fields", "sheets of diamonds", "cosmic rays", "force cutters", "inlay work", "clear talk", "telepathing", "nodes", "vortices", and "magnetic net") that were used throughout the book and which might be of some value for later research. Afterwards, Major Ritter passed the book on to two other O.N.R. officers, Commander George W. Hoover (Special Projects Officer) and Captain Sidney Sherby. These men were intimately involved in the Navy's Project Vanguard, the code name for the U.S. effort to develop the first artificial earth satellite.

Commander Hoover and Captain Sherby, reviewing the book, and the mysterious comments within it, invited Jessup to come to O.N.R. and discuss his book. By this time it was the spring of 1957 and 18 months had passed since the book had first arrived at the O.N.R. As Jessup read the annotated book he reportedly became more and more distressed, because the comments referred to subjects he had heard about but which had not been mentioned in his writings.

The person or persons who had written these comments had a good understanding of the current "myths" of UFOs, extraterrestrials, and other subjects mainly the concern of psychics, cultists and mystics. Jessup became confused as to why the United States government was so interested in the scribblings from such an apparently cluttered mind. As he read further he came across a comment concerning a secret Navy experiment in 1943 and immediately he knew who had been responsible for the crazed and disjointed comments. Jessup then shared his discovery with the Naval Officers and they in turn asked if the O.N.R. could have the letters. Next they informed Jessup that a special edition of his book was being produced by them and it would include all the additions. Jessup consented to the new edition and made three additional trips to the O.N.R. concerning this matter.

Shortly after these meetings Jessup was involved in a car accident. At the same time he began experiencing marital difficulties; close friends say he was never quite the same after that. He seemed quite disturbed by the Navy experience and after receiving the promised copies of his own book he spent considerable time adding his own comments. Hoover and Shelby would, in the days to come, make many attempts to find the elusive Allende (Carl Allen) but with no success. Jessup was still confused as to why the Navy was so interested in this matter, and spent considerable time researching the details of the operation known as the "Philadelphia Experiment".

In the meantime all his efforts to get back to Mexico had come up blank, and he now devoted himself to writing and publishing. He moved back to his native Indiana and started publishing a small astrological journal. During October of 1958, Jessup left Indiana for New York on publishing business and around the 31st paid a visit to a friend, Ivan T. Sanderson, founder of the Society for the Investigation of the Unexplained (S.I.T.U.). Over dinner Jessup gave Sanderson the copy of the book he had been making notes in; Jessup, being visibly disturbed, asked Sanderson in great sincerity to read it and then lock it up for safe keeping—"In case anything should happen to me." Jessup was scheduled to return to Indiana within a few days. When he failed to return, his publisher became concerned and contacted one of Jessups' associates concerning his whereabouts. His associate related that he had no information.

Six weeks after his New York departure Jessup, was located in Florida; apparently, he had gone there from New York and had been involved in another major car accident from which he was still recovering. Jessup, during those next months, was in terrible spirits. His publisher rejected his manuscripts as being "not up to par." His writings were drawing considerable criticism from all around the country. On April 20, 1959, two years after meeting with the O.N.R., Jessup was found dead in his car close to his Florida home: a victim of carbon-monoxide poisoning. A hose had been attached to his car exhaust and passed into the passenger side window. Jessup had killed himself. Or had he? Jessup's death has been the subject of substantial speculation. Some of his friends have said that Jessup was not the type to kill himself.

Others have suggested he was murdered when he refused to abandon his UFO research. Rumors were then circulating about the "Men In Black", the name given to government agents who allegedly visited several UFO researchers and "persuaded" them to cease and desist their work. Other friends said that Jessup was depressed about personal problems and that he had sent a suicide note to a close friend. However, the handwriting was not checked to see if it matched with Jessup's.

The truth about Morris K. Jessup will probably never be known, placing him in that same file cabinet along with Karen Silkwood, John F. Kennedy, Martin Luther King, and other humans regarding whom certain factions in our society would have an easier time of things if they were invisible or dead. But there really was a destroyer named the Eldridge, and it remained on active duty until 1946. After it had been removed from military service, it was mothballed until it was transferred to the Greek Navy.

Many UFO researchers maintain that some kind of secret experiment took place with a Navy warship in 1943, thus planting the seed for the legend of the Philadelphia Experiment. Most speculate that it was probably an experiment in attempting to make ships invisible to enemy submarines and that it very well could have involved incredibly high voltages of electricity—which could have burned and scorched seamen and even delivered a kind of shock that drove some of the crewmen insane. Other researchers have insisted that a government conspiracy is at work and that the secret experiment ripped a hole in the spacetime continuum that permitted alien intelligences to begin their invasion of the planet.

Numerous UFO investigators have searched without success for that tantalizing proof of the Philadelphia Experiment in invisibility which Allende claimed could be found in the Philadelphia newspapers So we might ask, Did the Navy really make a Destroyer-class ship disappear and transport itself over four hundred miles of ocean in a matter of moments, or is this just some fantastic story? And if this is not just a story, why did they do it? We know by the results why the Navy might have wanted to keep things quiet. Governmental cover-ups are not new; they seem to come with the institution.

However, there are more several unanswered questions: What caused the death of some of the crew members aboard ship in a safe and secure harbour? Why was the remainder of the crew discharged as medically unfit? If one concludes that the Philadelphia Experiment did really occur, then was the untimely death of an independent researcher investigating the alleged experiment really suicide? How could the Navy possibly accomplish such a fantastic experiment? The answers to the many puzzles of the Philadelphia Experiment will some day be known. Or perhaps they are already known by a few.


Through the hazy black and white footage, the relaxed shape of a bloated, swollen-headed, six-fingered humanoid figure can just be viewed. The grainy scene is a bizarre image of death as the pathologist cuts into the alien skin. Could this be the most incredible evidence ever uncovered to prove that something out of this world really did land at Roswell over fifty years ago?


 UFO crashed space-ship?

On 7th July 1947 the wreckage of a strange vehicle and some non-human bodies was found on the Foster ranch just outside Roswell.


This is a photograph of Major Jesse Marcel holding fragments of the Roswell crash UFO debris on July 8, 1947. On that historical day, newspaper photographer James "Bond" Johnson was hastily dispatched from the Fort Worth Star-Telegram newspaper to take photographs of the Major posing with the UFO crash debris for the newspaper.

The next day, a press officer from the Roswell Army Air Fields was happy to announce to the Roswell Daily Record that the 509th Bomb Group, an elite section of the Air Force, had salvaged an alien vessel. Immediately his words were refuted.


The US 8th Air Force’s commanding officer, General Roger Ramey, said they had actually recovered an experimental balloon. Ramey’s explanation was quickly adopted as the official line throughout the following years, and this technique of outright denial would continue to be championed by governments questioned about flying saucer stories. Although the public initially accepted the official version of events, this episode sparked a consistent stream of UFO sightings, particularly around remote US Air Force bases.


In June, Bond Johnson asked if we would examine the Roswell crash photographs using high-tech computer technology. Scanning photographs made from the original negatives and then magnifying them revealed the photograph's 50 year old secret -- symbols of unknown origin sequentially lined up and down the beams.

What a revelation! But who made the symbols and what do they represent? If the symbols were of Earthly origin, we would expect them to be familiar to us, but they are not. Today we use symbols in public places such as airports, hotels, and restaurants to communicate information to people who do not speak our language. We have standard symbols representing things such as eating, sleeping and transportation. What then, do these unknown symbols represent? Were they made by people on Earth? Or alien beings from somewhere else?

Sites such as Area 51 in Nevada, and the government’s denial of its existence, led to suspicion and conspiracy theories. The 1947 ‘Roswell Incident’ itself has also never quite left the public consciousness. In 1994 a New Mexico congressman instigated an inquiry into the affair. The investigative department of the US Congress, known as the General Accounting Office, discovered that many relevant US Air Force documents had gone missing or had been destroyed. However, the GAO also came to the conclusion that it was, indeed, a weather balloon that had been recovered from the Foster ranch, and the bodies there were in fact anthropomorphic dummies. Case closed. Little did US officials realise that the ‘Roswell Incident’ was about to dramatically appear on television screens across the globe. In 1992, a British media businessman, Ray Santilli was in Cleveland, Ohio to meet a retired cameraman. Santilli wanted to buy some vintage 1955 Elvis footage from the man, who revealed he also had some interesting alien autopsy film from his time in the military.

Santilli purchased the film in November 1994 and agreed to show it at the British UFO Research Association annual conference on 19th August 1995. However, by March 1995 news of the film had been released to the media, and a serious world premier of the footage was needed. It took place in front of invited guests at the Museum of London on 5th May. By the end of August 1995, millions of people around the world had seen moving pictures from a supposed alien autopsy. Although this was compelling evidence, doubters immediately began voicing their theories about the film. The most obvious suspicion was that the autopsy had been created by movie special effects processes.

Many experts believe the film is fake, but they also believe it is very high quality. The Hollywood effects industry is a closed shop, with insiders having friends and contacts across the range of companies, but so far no one has an inkling as to who created the Roswell film. Other experts in the field of biology are less convinced that the body is entirely man-made, and some suspect that it may be a human being adapted to look otherworldly. There is a whole host of further questions about the Roswell autopsy. Whoever captured the footage has never been revealed, although a bizarre film was released where someone purporting to be the cameraman attempted to explain his involvement. Santilli has never uncovered the footage he has of another alien autopsy and has never really allowed any of his films to be subjected to proper scrutiny.

Most importantly, the aliens in the footage look nothing like the bodies witnesses saw recovered from the New Mexico desert floor. All experts who view the autopsy film agree that it is a fake. Santilli has made a great deal of money from the Roswell autopsy footage, and he still maintains that it is genuine. The rest of us will probably never know. The public’s natural instinct is to question governmental denials, but the other options here are also so unreliable that it is very hard to determine the truth.



The kidnapping of champion racehorse Shergar remains one of Britain’s most baffling whodunnits. For two decades, the disappearance of the celebrated Derby winner has been shrouded in a fog of mystery and conspiracy theories. Shergar (born 1978. Sire: Great Nephew, Dam: Sharmeen) was an acclaimed racehorse, and winner of the 1981 Epsom Derby by a record 10 lengths, the longest winning margin in the race's 226-year history. This victory earned him a spot in The Observer newspaper's 100 Most Memorable Sporting Moments of the Twentieth Century. A bay colt with a distinctive white blaze, Shergar was named European Horse of the Year in 1981. Bred by his owner Prince Karim Aga Khan IV in County Kildare, close to the stud from which he was kidnapped, Shergar began training with Michael Stoute at Newmarket. His debut race in 1981 was the Guardian Classic Trial at Sandown Park. Racing correspondent Richard Baerlein, after watching the colt win by 10 lengths famously advised race-goers that "at 8-1, Shergar for the Derby, now is the time to bet like men".

After winning the Chester Vase by 12 lengths, Shergar started odds-on favourite at Epsom, ridden by 19-year-old jockey Walter Swinburn, also entering his first Derby. Swinburn recalled that early in the race Shergar "found his own pace and lobbed along as the leaders went off at a million miles an hour, with me just putting my hands down on his withers and letting him travel at his own speed". Shergar pulled to the front early and went further clear, so far that John Matthias on the runner-up Glint Of Gold thought he had won: "I told myself I'd achieved my life's ambition. Only then did I discover there was another horse on the horizon."

Shergar's next race was the Irish Derby Stakes, ridden by Lester Piggott. The apparent ease with which Shergar passed the rest of the runners, winning by 4 lengths, caused commentator Peter O'Sullevan to exclaim: "He's only in an exercise canter!" The horse became a national hero in Ireland.

Seeking to exploit Shergar's value at its peak, the Aga Khan sold 34 shares in the horse for £250,000 each, keeping six for himself, producing a valuation of £10 million, then a record for a stallion standing at stud in Europe. Among the buyers were bloodstock millionaire John Magnier and Shergar's vet Stan Cosgrove.

The King George VI & Queen Elizabeth Diamond Stakes at Ascot was also won by 4 lengths. After that came his only failure as a three year old when for some reason he didn't run anywhere near his best and could only manage fourth place in the St. Leger Stakes at Doncaster. Swinburn was sending out distress signals with two furlongs to go, and Shergar finished behind Cut Above, a horse he had beaten comprehensively in the Irish Derby. Lester Piggott's view is that "he must have been over the top by then" but, whatever the explanation, Shergar's racing career was over. His six wins had won £436,000 in prize money.

On February 8, 1983, armed men burst into Shergar’s stable in Ballymany, County Kildare, and forced head groom Jim Fitzgerald to load the horse onto a vehicle, which was then towed away. Shergar was never seen again. Days later, Fitzgerald received an anonymous ransom demand of £2 million for the safe return of the champion wonder horse. What happened next set the tone for a police operation that has been called “a caricature of police bungling”. Fitzgerald called the stud farm manager, who called Shergar’s vet, Cosgrove. The vet then called a racing associate, Sean Berry, who in turn called Alan Dukes, the Irish Finance Minister. Not until eight hours had elapsed did anyone call the Gardaí.

Their immediate investigation was not helped by a smart piece of planning by the gang, which had selected the same day as the biggest horse sales in the country, when horseboxes had passed along every road in Ireland. Leading the investigation into the kidnapping was trilby-wearing Chief Superintendent Jim "Spud" Murphy, who became a media hero. His detection techniques were unconventional and a variety of clairvoyants, psychics and diviners were called in to help. During one interview Mr Murphy told reporters: “A clue... that is what we haven’t got.”

Despite numerous reported sightings and rumours of secret negotiations in the days following the kidnap there was little new information and a news hungry press pack began to focus their attention on Mr Murphy. During one press conference six photographers turned up wearing trilbies, identical to the police chief, after which Mr Murphy was given a much lower public profile.

While the police searched every farm, stable and outhouse in the Irish Republic, the gang members set about seeking a ransom. Initially, they requested negotiations with three racing journalists, including Derek Thompson. He was dispatched to negotiate in the full glare of the media circus that descended on Ireland. The day after the kidnap, he took a call at 1.15am from someone claiming to be a kidnapper. He expected it to be traced, but was later told it had not been. "The man who does the tracing goes off duty at midnight," the police told him.

Away from the TV cameras, the real kidnappers had got in touch with the Aga Khan's Paris office. But Shergar’s primary owner, the Aga Khan, refused to give in for fear of setting a precedent in the sport. Shergar’s vet, Stan Cosgrove, believes the kidnappers made the mistake of thinking that the Aga Khan was the sole owner of the horse and would be only too willing to part with his millions. In fact, Shergar was owned by thirty-four separate individuals in a syndicate, most of whom had no intention of paying up. Cosgrove was deputed to collect the evidence, which was to be left at a hotel reception. Unfortunately, a conspicuous Special Branch presence warned off the gang. The furious kidnappers made a further call threatening to kill the horse and the Aga Khan's negotiators.

Eventually, however, a photograph of the horse's face next to a newspaper was sent to the police, but the owners were still not satisfied. What the gang did not know was that the syndicate had no intention of paying because they wanted to deter future kidnappings. Syndicate member Sir Jake Astor explained: "We were going to negotiate, but we were not going to pay." Had they paid the money for Shergar's release, they reasoned, every racehorse in the world would have become a target for kidnappers.

Four days after the abduction, the kidnappers made their last call. A former gunman with the Irish Republican Army (IRA) recently confessed that the IRA was behind the bungled kidnapping, but the group has never accepted responsibility for the crime. Even so, Shergar was taken at the height of the IRA’s military campaign against the British, and at a time when it was desperate for funds to buy weapons. Given its plight at the time, a theft of such magnitude seems far from implausible.

Over the last twenty years there have been numerous reported sightings of Shergar, but none have proved conclusive. Some claim to have seen him racing in Libya, others believe that gunrunners took him to Marseille. Conspiracy theories abound, too, concerning Mafia involvement. Shergar’s kidnapping remains one of the greatest mysteries of the 1980s. To this day, no body has been found. The case remains open.

Subliminal Messages

Subliminal Messages: areas they are used in.

Do you know what subliminal messages are? Technically, they are defined as messages displayed for such a short time that your conscious mind doesn’t even notice them. They get ingrained in your subconscious mind. Since your conscious mind doesn’t even know its existence it can use no logic or reasoning to accept or reject the idea. Yes, this is very much possible and these messages are transmitted just below the threshold of our conscious mind.

You will surely have a doubt that is it possible to influence the behavior of individuals or a group without their knowledge? Two areas which would not mind spending huge amounts of money in doing this would be the commercial and ad world.

Some instances of these messages are:

• Ads which have subliminal messages ingrained in them
• embedding lewd images in print and video ads.
• Rock music which has such messages hidden
• Audio tapes with messages recorded at such frequency.

The motive behind such means is:

• Force people to buy what they don’t wish to
• Instigate suicidal tendencies in people
• Help smokers quit.

Ethical or Not?
A lot of debate has taken place and is still continuing over subliminal messages, since it takes place without the subjects being aware of it. These techniques have been in use since a long time. For years, these methods have been used to influence consumers to buy products. The morality of this technique is questioned in the following areas:

• Ads
• Rock music and fundmentalists

It has been established that this practice is unethical. Many allegations have been hurled upon big honchos who have used these techniques to pocket more profits every year.

Even fundamentalists have used this technique to popularize their culture, weird customs through rock music among the masses.

Use For Self Development.
The best use of subliminal messages is for self advancement. This industry is valued at $50 million today and is growing at a phenomenal rate. Lot of people spread all over the globe use self help tapes, CDs and mp3s. This show that subliminal messages are effective. Some areas where they have been used are:

• reducing obesity
• breast enlargement
• self confidence
• enhancing sex drive
• increase bowling performance.

And many others. These techniques help you to realize many of the talents that are hidden and may even transform you life in the way you have always wished. Moreover, these tools are very handy , you can carry them anywhere and use them while you drive, work or are with your family.

Pictorial forms of subliminal messages are also available. This way you will be completely aware of what is displayed and can even decide the fashion is which the messages are flashed.

Subliminal Messaging in the Ad-World

The April 2006 issue of the magazine New Scientist says that research has shown results in favor of subliminal messages in advertisements. The results have shown that if circumstances are appropriate, subliminal advertising designed to popularize a brand can be successful.

Experiments conducted earlier were ignored. But in a recent development, scientists discovered that nearly 80 per cent of people who were subjected to subliminal advertising messages bought that product while only 20 per cent of controls did the same. These indeed are very dangerous trends.

The origins of “subliminal message” can be found during World War I. It was during this time that US army inserted subliminal messages into songs so as to inspire people to join the army.

The definition of subliminal message states that it is any signal which is below the thresholds of perception. There are various forms to convey these messages. It could be an image flashed for a time interval which is very short for the conscious mind to understand but sufficient enough to get registered in our unconscious minds.
Our conscious minds functions purely on reason and logic. It does not allow anything that is against what it is programmed to believe. The subconscious mind instead is not judgmental and accepts all information.

Children are most vulnerable to this powerful technique when used in advertisements. Research has shown that if children watch television one more hour than the usual timing, they ask for at least one more of the products that has been shown in the ads.

But all parents have known this fact beforehand. All parents have experienced their children pestering them to buy what they want.Results of research also show that priming works only it is in alignment with our goals. Put simply, you will tend to buy a product only if you think it satisfies some of you needs or wants.Hence, it is may be more beneficial to use priming when you want to target some section of consumers, instead of aiming to create a need among people for the product.

Ever wondered what would happen if politicians use it? In fact, they may be using it since long.

Do this mean that subliminal messages are unethical if used in ads? Should there be more stringent regulations in ads? What are methods available to detect subliminal messages?

And the most crucial issue is if its wrong that subliminal messaging works or are the advertisers wrong to use such methods to manipulate consumers.

Nevertheless, a number of beneficial uses of subliminal also do exist. On such instance is for bringing about a change in one’s habit or personality.

Subliminal Videos: Are they Real?

There exists no concrete proof till now to demonstrate that subliminal videos function. But what all the theorists have proposed is that these subliminal messages go around the conscious mind and connect to our subconscious.

It does sound bizarre. Lets see and try to gather more information on subliminal messages.

Our conscious brain relies completely on logic and reasoning. It is a very efficient filter which stores information which is helpful to us. Anytime we observe an object, millions of bits of information is process in our brains and filtering takes place instantly and constantly. For example, on observing the grass in the lawn the brain takes it as “lawn grass”. It doesn’t go deep into observing each blade if there is no need.

Thus at any point of time there is a lot of information that is dumped by our conscious brain.

On the other hand, subliminal messages take advantage of the concept that our brain has capacity to process a lot more information that it allows itself to.

Usually, when we watch videos, the messages flash for a short period of time, sometimes only till few milliseconds. This is too short a time for our conscious mind to take notice and process. But it is suffice enough for our subconscious mind to register and act upon.

What is subliminal effect?

The concept subliminal is archaic, although it is in daily use. The main problem is its necessary bound to the idea of a well-defined perceptual threshold, a concept now in disuse by the first appearance of the signal detection theory into cognitive sciences.

However, we'll remain to use this term, (so as the word "trance" in the field of hypnosis), due to the fact that it is deep-rooted in the minds of both public and the scientists . The isolated term means "below a threshold," however there is no clearly defined threshold to sensory perception. Indeed, there are many different perceptual features processed and detected before they are brought to our awareness, with the assistance of our attention. This makes the concept highly flexible in what and how we can integrate perceptual impressions into our awareness.

In scientific usage, we can call a stimulus subliminal only if it is faint enough, brief enough, or somehow cannot stimulate the senses enough to induce us to notice its presence, yet subsequent tests can register its presence. But, a more scientifically accurate word for this concept would be slightly perceptible.

The mainstream meaning of the word "subliminal" is any effect that influences our perception from outside of our awareness.

The interest in subliminal effects in modern science goes back to perceptual physiologist O. Poetzl in the first years of the 1900's. He studied the influence of flashed images on our dreams. In the 50's the introduction of the tachistoscope for even more fast flashing pictures provoked a renewed interest in subliminal effects. Originally a perceptual curiosity, it grew into both a public controversy and a research controversy.

The story of "subliminal effects" begins actually with the reports of a market research consultant: James Vicary. He affirmed that he could influence the behavior of movie audiences by flashing messages onto the screen. In a mood prepared carefully by the views of social critic Vance Packard, this assertion provoked an enduring and widespead fear of subliminal messages in the media. This fact evolved into a higher fear of embedded messages, movies, magazine pictures, of couse television, computer software, Muzak in stores and fear of backward played messages, considered satanis, in music songs.

V. Packard seems to have been concerned about the use of psychology by advertisers to produce symbolic messages in ads. This created some sources of fear, as the unceasing rumors of sexual symbolism in children's movies.

However, the story also has an offshoot. It is the moneymaking realm of tapes that are intended to help us program the mind without effort with self-help messages. A similar subliminal effect is claimed to help potential seducers win the minds and hearts of their quarry.

Subliminal is a term commonly used to actually mean several distinct types of hidden messages.

• Artistically or Blatant concealed messages suggestive of instinctual drives
• Images of contrived social exchanges and explicit body language
• Briefly or faint flashed images or words
• Metaphor or other "hypnotic" patterns
• Acoustically backward messages or masked in music songs

Of all these various types of "subliminal" effects, psychologists refer only to the flashed words or pictures, and the acoustic masking of a message, when they discuss about subliminal or marginal perception. All those are stimuli used in the subliminal experiments that cause weak, temporary psychological effects.
Putting it in other words, the scientific experimenters involved in research into subliminal priming agree that it do exists, however they are of the opinion that it consists of relatively fleeting and weak effects of mainly theoretical interest. This is probably true of unconscous lexical priming.

Several authors, specially Wilson B. Key, brought the word subliminal into public awareness. His literature is a clear warning that advertising companies are able of influencing their audience through hidden messages, or actively are doing so, with mainly malicious intent. His warning refers to what the psychologists call subliminal priming, however also a series of other types of persuasion tactics associated with the concept subliminal effect.

Following the main idea of Key, V. Packard and others in the same genre, the word subliminal is normally used to refer to influences on people that cannot be noticed. In addition to this weak stimulus used by researchers, it also includes elements like hidden images in scenes, the production of scenes for emotional motivation, playing songs backwards, metaphorical or embedded symbols in messages, the use of visual elements to invoke drives, and many more.

Whether all of these elements has an "unconscious" influence is rather a matter of empirical evidence, however whether there are effective influences is a matter or more investigation. Lumping all these elements together into a main category with faint and brief messages used in psychology experiments indeed makes it impossible to select things like social influence, emotional appeal, suggestion, preconscious processing, and associative conditioning.

Subliminal lexical priming is the influence of flashed words on subsequent words in a multiple choice test. It lasts about 90 milliseconds and it does not influence the next trial or the next experiments.

All subliminal lexical priming is the result of a flashed picture on basic preferences in a choice test, and it is more robust. This is known as the "simple exposure effect" . Some variations of the simple exposure effect have been proven to achieve emotional areas of the brain, specially the amygdala, without conscious awareness.

This is probably some kind of "classical conditioning" of feelings and memories without conscious awareness. It begins to enter into the area of something that can be produced into propaganda messages, especially if it is used as a reinforcer.
Subliminal psychological activations are one of the main methods, or at least the most intriguing. All subliminal stimuli enter into our dreams and waking pictures in a disturbed way, it influences later recalls and perceptions, and remarkably it even can influence our social acting. But, it is indeed the most difficult to prove, presumably because its main feature is that it is the most vulnerable to individual differences and the mental states of the recipients, besides the vagueries of individual interpretations of results.

The most efficient methods in practice imply both unconscious and conscious elements, both coordinated to appeal to emotions and exploit natural information processing way and common biases, as well as carry our unconscious thinking processes in a determined way.

Becoming somehow aware of subliminal effects generally reduces the influence of these, in both the exposure and psychological experiments. The whole combination of unconscious and conscious elements is carefully coordinated, however not duplicated (conscious elements are not transformed into unconscious).

The main reason why this methods is effective, compared to others relying or emphasizing on hidden pictorial messages, is due to the fact that hidden messages influence the feelings and thinking of test subjects, but they do not cause behavior, at least they don't do it by any known effect.

The subliminal influences behavior indirectly, principally by influencing perception, feeling and thinking . Conscious thinking triggers and organizes behavior, even though some aspects of behavior are not conscious, such as the main details of some movements or the expression of nonverbal communication.

Also hypnosis research has proven that compulsions and illusions can be created through simple suggestion under special conditions with particular people, without awareness of the source.

These hypnotic suggestions are highly limited by the main expectations of the test subject, the relationship stablished with the hypnotist, or the characteristics of the situation. The higher are the expectation, the more the subject can be controlled, or the greater their sense of practice the more involuntary they conduct their response.

It is the degree to which messages can produce a similar type of dissociated control that is at the main point of the most potential threat of subliminal persuasion. Without the expectancy factors that make suggestion effective, it is quite difficult to see how the comparison can be made.

Unless they are tailored to the individual, there is no evidence of any elaborate effect from preconscious processing of hidden messages, or that they are worth following as an aid to ads.

Achieving this type of effect through a combination of subliminal messaging and hypnotic means is a theoretical possibility under some conditions. At issue is the problem of creating the cooperative relationship needed for it, creating the expectancy that we can be controlled, and the differences in the way individuals respond to suggestion.

The threat of subliminal influence seems quite limited at this time due to the weak reinforcement of messages, however the combination of effects can be hard to determine. A message employing subliminal methods, like any one, can often have effects on the listener depending on their psychological needs and mind.

Tesla's "Death Ray" Machine

Was it a laser or a particle beam accelerator?

Tesla's work on particle beam weapons can be traced all the way back to 1893 with his invention of a button lamp, and again to 1896 when he replicated the work of William Roentgen, discoverer of X-rays. At that time, Tesla was "shooting" X-rays over considerable distances, creating photographs of skeletons sometimes as far away as 40 feet from the source of the gun. Tesla was also involved in experiments with shooting cathode rays at targets. This and similar work from one of Tesla's British colleagues, J.J. Thompson, led to the discovery, by Thompson, of the electron. During that period in the mid-1890's, Tesla conversed often with Thompson, particularly in the electrical journals.

At about the year 1918, Tesla apparently had a laser-like apparatus that he shot at the moon. From studying his great 1893 work THE INVENTIONS, RESEARCHES AND WRITINGS OF NIKOLA TESLA, it is apparent that the button lamp discussed above had all of the components necessary to create a laser beam.

This lamp was so constructed so as to place a piece of matter such as carbon, or a diamond or a ruby, in the center, and bombard this "button" with electrical energy that would bounce off the button onto the inside of the globe and bounce back onto the button. If this were a ruby, and Tesla specifically worked with rubies, then is exactly how a ruby laser is created. Tesla refers in INVENTIONS to a "pencil-thin" line of light that was created with this device. It is my belief that Tesla not only invented the ruby laser in 1893, but he also demonstrated it and published it's results. The problem with the device was that it was set up so as to "vaporize," or destroy, the button, so that the laser effects were probably short-lived.

However, if we jump ahead to the 1918 story, which was told to me by Coleman Czito's grandson's wife, it is very possible that Tesla used the same or similar kind of apparatus to send laser pulses to the moon.

Now, to get to the particle beam weapon, this is an entirely separate invention and evolved from, all things, a pop gun that he used as a boy. The pop gun works by pumping air into the barrel and causing the cork to come barreling out. This gun could be used to shoot targets and small animals, and Tesla discusses this gun in his autobiography.

What Tesla realized was that a "ray" would not have the energy requirement to be destructive. Also, even if he had a laser, or laser-like ray, it would still disperse somewhat, over long distances. So Tesla came to the conclusion that instead of shooting a ray of light, he would shoot microscopic pellets. The stream could not disperse because, theoretically, it would be one pellet thick.

After studying the Van de Graaff electrostatic generator, which used a cardboard belt to generate the high voltages, Tesla came to utilize the same essential set-up to generate tremendous charges, but he replaced the belt with an ionized stream of air and then used this electrified stream to "repel" the small pellets which were made out of tungsten. These pellets were shot out of an open-ended vacuum tube which was shaped in the form of a cannon.

It is my belief that this device, which was presented to the International Tesla Society by the late Dr. Andrija Puharich at the 1984 Tesla Centennial Symposium (and published in that proceedings as, essentially, Tesla's 1937 top secret patent application), was designed to be as large as the tower at Wardenclyffe. The shaft, which could have been as tall as 100 feet, would contain the "belt" of ionized stream of air.

The round bulbous part of the tower would continue to circulate the ionized stream and hold the charge, and out the top of the tower there would be the long barrel of the gun. Such a machine, which Tesla tried to sell during World War II to the United States, England, the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia, would be able to shoot down incoming planes at distances of about 300 miles.

Proof that this device was given to the Soviets has been established by such individuals as Colonel Tom Bearden, who points out that the May 2, 1977 issue of AVIATION WEEK, displays a picture of a Soviet particle beam weapon, (along with the accompanying 7000 word article) that is almost a carbon copy of the picture in Tesla's 1937 patent application, which, as stated above has been published in the ITS 1984 proceedings.

A question remains as to whether or not Tesla actually constructed a particle beam weapon. I believe that when looks at this question from a historical standpoint, we see that he had been working on this and similar devices for over 30 years. Thus, it is my opinion that Tesla did, indeed, construct a working model. At the age of 81, at a luncheon in his honour, concerning the Death Ray, Tesla stated,

"But it is not an experiment.... I have built, demonstrated and used it. Only a little time will pass before I can give it to the world."

Had Tesla's Death Ray devastated Tunguska?

The mechanism behind Tesla's death ray is not well understood. It was apparently some sort of particle accelerator. Tesla said it was an outgrowth of his magnifying transformer, which focused its energy output into a thin beam so concentrated it would not scatter, even over huge distances. He promoted the device as a purely defensive weapon, intended to knock down incoming attacks - making the death ray the great-great grandfather of the Strategic Defense Initiative.

It is not certain if Tesla ever used the death ray, or indeed if he even succeeded in building one. But the following is the often-related story of what happened one night in 1908 when Tesla tested the foreboding weapon.

At the time, Robert Peary was making his second attempt to reach the North Pole. Cryptically, Tesla had notified the expedition that he would be trying to contact them somehow. They were to report to him the details of anything unusual they might witness on the open tundra. On the evening of June 30, accompanied by his associate George Scherff atop Wardenclyffe tower, Tesla aimed his death ray across the Atlantic towards the arctic, to a spot which he calculated was west of the Peary expedition.

Tesla switched on the device. At first, it was hard to tell if it was even working. Its extremity emitted a dim light that was barely visible. Then an owl flew from its perch on the tower's pinnacle, soaring into the path of the beam. The bird disintegrated instantly.

That concluded the test. Tesla watched the newspapers and sent telegrams to Peary in hopes of confirming the death ray's effectiveness. Nothing turned up. Tesla was ready to admit failure when news came of a strange event in Siberia.

On June 30, a massive explosion had devastated Tunguska, a remote area in the Siberian wilderness. Five hundred thousand square acres of land had been instantly destroyed. Equivalent to ten to fifteen megatons of TNT, the Tunguska incident is the most powerful explosion to have occurred in human history -- not even subsequent thermonuclear detonations have surpassed it. The explosion was audible from 620 miles away. Scientists believe it was caused by either a meteorite or a fragment of a comet, although no obvious impact site or mineral remnants of such an object were ever found.

Nikola Tesla had a different explanation. It was plain that his death ray had overshot its intended target and destroyed Tunguska. He was thankful beyond measure that the explosion had - miraculously - killed no one. Tesla dismantled the death ray at once, deeming it too dangerous to remain in existence.

Thermodynamics tells us that you won't get more energy out than you put in... and you have to burn a lot of coal to get 15 megatons worth of energy out of the generators common in Tesla's time. IF Tesla caused the Tunguska Blast, THEN one of these three hypotheses must be true:

The fundamental laws of Termodynamics are wrong, or at least flawed.

Tesla burned a hell of a lot of coal and stored the energy through some capacitative effect in his Wydencliffe apparatus, possibly over days or weeks.

Tesla's device does not actually cause the explosion, but artificially catalyzes another (even higher-energy) phenomenon. There is simple precedent for this hypothesis - just think of how much energy a gallon of gasoline releases when you apply a simple spark.

Let's ignore (1) for the moment because refuting thermodynamics is a much larger issue than proving that Tesla built a working 'death ray'. (2) could potentially be proven through historic records, if anyone can find out how much fuel was delivered to Wydencliffe in 1908. I'd wager that all the fuel ever burned at the facility would not generate 15 megatons-equivalent of electrical
energy, even with a very efficient power plant.

Wydencliffe facility was NOT dismantled after the 1908 experiments, but rather that it was signed over to a hotel in NYC to settly for Tesla's unpaid bills. It was dynamited almost a decade later to recover the scrap metal costs. The important 'black boxes' may already have been removed, but it is possible that Tesla did not 'immediately dismantle' Wydencliffe, as is claimed in this article. Again, this is something that could be supported by research into the public records for the state of New York.

Finally, Tesla was also researching broadcast power, using the earth itself as a transmission system. Is it possible that his 'death ray' was not a particle-beam style device, but a kind of capacitor that could selectively and explosively discharge on the earth's surface? It wouldn't explain anything, but it would be important for
anyone seeking to duplicate the experiment to know in what direction Tesla had been heading when he allegedly blew up Tunguska... 

Nikola Tesla was a man without equal. With his machine, he could move buildings over 1/4 mile away using a small air compressor and a piston in a cylinder through resonance. Why could'nt he apply these same ideas to his 'Death Ray',which would focus all the energy from his Wardenclyffe facility at one point, picking up energy from the earth along the way.

In a cursory surf of the web, I've not found primary eyewitness accounts of Tesla's Wardenclyffe test, nor secondary news accounts of the day; tertiary sources abound, but only the message I reply to here and a Parascope's Tesla page provide even a qualitative idea of the time, given in both as "the evening of June 30". (The two accounts, in fact, appear to be identical.)

Published reports give 7:17 am, June 30, 1908, local Tunguska time (00:17 GMT) for the event. This is consistent with seismic records of the event, in which the GMT (Greenwich Mean Time) for the earliest seismic arrival at the Irkutsk observatory is given as 00:18.8.

Now, Tesla's Long Island facility is -5 hours from GMT, or 12 hours earlier than Tunguska time. In other words, the Tunguska event occured at about 7:17 pm, June 29, Long Island time, about one day before the time given in web accounts of Tesla's Wardenclyffe experiment.

So, if the qualitative web accounts of Tesla's experiment are trustworthy, Tesla had nothing to do with Tunguska. If anybody can provide eyewitness accounts of Tesla's activities, this could be nailed down, one way or another.

The Parascope account is sensationalized to say the least. Their use of the date "June 30th" is not arrived at by any documented evidence. The credible evidence suggests that Tesla was periodically conducting high-power experiments at Wardenclyffe during mid 1908, but "nailing it down" precisely is presently very difficult, because Teslas notes from the period are lost!!

Oliver Nichelson first proposed a Tesla/Tunguska link based on compelling circumstantial evidence. This evidence is not adequately reflected in any of the tabloid-style fictionalized accounts, that get quoted and re-quoted. People don't like scientific arguments based on circumstantial evidence, so they sometimes lie to fill gaps in their knowledge.

The true evidence is of a subtler form, residing in the nature of the Tunguska Blast & Wardenclyffe, and Tesla's demonstrated interest in the journeys of Peary.
Writings which make extravagant claims about non-existent first-hand accounts only serve to arouse the skepticism of otherwise open-minded people. There may in fact be as much circumstantial evidence for a Tesla/Tunguska link, as there is for many widely accepted scientific theories. Some people would just dismiss the idea out of hand, but you can't please everyone.

Ask the FBI what they know about the Japanese Aum Shinrikyo Cult and their interest in Tesla.

Initially the tremor was assumed to be the result of a meteorite impact (such as Tunguska). After gathering detailed data and speaking to the locals evidence suggested a man-made event.

Eyewitnesses reported sighting a fireball trailing across the sky just minutes before the subsequent tremor. This was followed by a bright blue flash and shortly afterwards, by an earth tremor measuring 3.7 on the Richter scale.

Shortly following this a "large hemisphere of orange light, lined with a silverish glow, rose above the apparent blast site." Extraordinarily, the dome of light remained in place for two hours, and then rapidly vanished like "someone turning off a switch.
I personally believe that this was probably the first time since 1908, that the full power of Tesla's death ray had been unleashed.

The Aum cult are also thought to have re-created Tesla's eathquake machine. The cult's leader so accurately predicted the Kobe disaster 8 days before the event. Kobe was automatically assumed to be a terrible natural disaster but I bet Aum could tell you otherwise.

Tesla weapons of this distructive power make nukes look like pellet guns. If such technology is in the hands of these maniacs then the world has something really to worry about.

The Project 'Blue Book'

Project Blue Book was one of a series of systematic studies of Unidentified flying objects (UFOs) conducted by the United States Air Force (U.S.A.F.). The staffs of Project Blue Book was assigned to carry out three main functions:

1. To try to find an explanation for all reported sightings of UFOs;
2. To determine whether theUFOs posed any security threat to the United States; and
3. To determine if UFOs exhibited any advanced technology that the United States could utilize.

Thousands of UFO reports were collected, analyzed and filed, which concluded there was nothing anomalous about any UFOs, Project Blue Book was ordered shut down in December 1969. This project was the last publicly known UFO research project led by the USAF. But what do US governments really know about UFOs? Certainly some conspiracy theorists have suggested that the United States government actually has a close relationship with alien visitors, and provides them with ground bases. One of the areas is said to be under the water of the western Atlantic. Other theories propose that extraterrestrial beings are allegedly abducting law abiding US citizens in return for technological secrets.

On June 24, 1947, when civilian pilot Kenneth Arnold sighted nine discs near Mount Rainier in the state of Washington and described the motion of the unidentified flying objects as looking like “a saucer skipping across the water,” the Boise, Idaho, businessman inadvertently coined a term that would become known in most languages of the world, “flying saucers.” The U.S. Air Force immediately denied that they had any such craft, and at the same time officially debunked Arnold’s claim of having spotted unidentified flying objects. Donald H. Menzel, Professor of Astrophysics at Harvard, who became an unyielding saucer-skeptic and debunker, said that Arnold had been fooled by the tilting snow clouds or dust haze reflected by the sun. Arnold, however, stuck fast to his story, and the item made the front page of newspapers across the nation.

For UFOlogists, it was the birth of an era. During the period June through December 1947 there was no specific organization responsible for investigating and evaluating UFO reports. At this time everyone had an expert opinion. Even within the military structure, there were those who expressed their own feelings and beliefs as to what UFOs actually represented. The wide news coverage of public reports of “flying discs or saucers” created sufficient concern at high military echelons to authorize the Air Material Command (AMC) to conduct a preliminary investigation into these reports. Early belief was that the objects reported were of aircraft more advanced than those possessed by the U.S. Armed Forces. A letter (September 23, 1947) from Lt. General Twining of AMC to the commanding general of the Army Air Forces expressed the opinion that there was sufficient substance in the reports to warrant a detailed study.

On December 30, 1947, a letter from the chief of staff directed AMC to establish a project whose purpose was to collect, collate, evaluate, and disseminate all information concerning UFO sightings and phenomena in the atmosphere to those interested agencies. The project was assigned the code name “Sign.” The responsibility for “Project Sign” was delegated to the Air Technical Intelligence Center, which was then part of the AMC. In February of 1949 “Project Sign” completed its evaluations of the 243 UFO reports that had been submitted to the project. The report concluded that: “No definite and conclusive evidence is yet available that would prove or disprove the existence of these UFOs as real aircraft of unknown and unconventional configuration.”

“Project Sign” was changed to “Project Grudge” on December 16, 1948, at the request of the director of Research and Development. Project Grudge completed its evaluations of 244 reports in August 1949. The conclusions of the Grudge reports were that the evaluations of reports of UFOs to date had demonstrated that “these flying objects constitute no threat to the security of the United States.” Grudge also concluded that reports of UFOs were the result of misinterpretations of conventional objects, a mild form of mass hysteria or war nerves, and individuals who sought to perpetrate a hoax or seek publicity. Project Grudge also recommended that the investigation and study of reports of UFOs be reduced in scope. Air force investigation of UFOs continued on a reduced scale, and in December 1951 the Air Force entered into a contract with a private industrial organization for another detailed study of the UFO cases on file. The report, which was completed March 17, 1954, is commonly referred to as Special Report Number 14. Reports one through 13 were progress reports dealing with administration. Special Report Number 14 reduced and evaluated all UFO data held in air force files. Basically, the same conclusions were reached that had been noted in both the preceding Sign and Grudge reports.

It was during the early 1950s that the national interest in reported sightings increased tremendously. With the growing volume of reports, a Scientific Advisory Panel on UFOs was established in late 1952. At a meeting held during January 14–18, 1953, all available data was examined. Conclusions and recommendations of this panel were published in a report and made public. The panel concluded that UFOs did not threaten the national security of the United States and recommended that the aura of mystery attached to the project be removed.

In March of 1952 Project Grudge became known as Project Blue Book. From this time to its conclusion in 1969, the project concerned itself with investigation of sightings, evaluation of the data, and release of information to proper news media through the Secretary of the Air Force, Office of Information (SAFOI). It was a scheme designed to show the public there were no secrets in the US’s official investigation of alien craft. This ‘openness’ was merely a front, and it was actually made a crime equal to spying for military officers to reveal details of UFOs to unauthorised people. In reality, Blue Book only reported cases that were guaranteed to be found as hoaxes or mistaken identity.

Blue Book officers were stationed at every air force base in the nation. They were responsible for investigating all reported sightings and for getting the reports into Blue Book headquarters at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. The bulk of the investigations, as interpreted by field officers, led Blue Book officials to decide that most people did not see extraterrestrial spacecraft, but bright stars, balloons, satellites, comets, fireballs, conventional aircraft, moving clouds, vapor trails, missiles, reflections, mirages, searchlights, birds, kites, spurious radar indications, fireworks, or flares.

One of the experts who worked as a scientific consultant on the project was Josef Allan Hynek. He revealed that any sightings reported by people under 18 years of age were automatically ignored, and other incidents would only be published if they could be rationalised. In total, Blue Book investigated 15,000 reports of UFOs, many of them still not explained, and Hynek himself experienced something of a conversion. He became an informed believer, and coined the term ‘close encounter’.

For more than two Decades, Dr. J. Allen Hynek, served as an astronomical consultant to Project Sign and Project Blue Book, had been teaching astronomy at Ohio State University in Columbus, which is not far from Dayton, where Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, the home of Project Blue Book, was located. When he entered the project, the government was trying desperately to determine whether it was the Martians or the Russians who were responsible for the elusive discs being tracked in the atmosphere over North America. The air force appealed to Hynek that they needed a competent astronomer to tell them which cases arose out of the misidentification of planets, stars, meteors, and so forth.

Hynek admitted later that he was certain that the UFO phenomenon was a result of postwar nerves, and he was certain that in a few years the whole strange business would be forgotten. He also prematurely concluded that the flying saucers were strictly an American fad. He never suspected that it would turn out to be a global phenomenon. But the famous sightings in Michigan in March and April 1967, the ones that got Dr. Hynek dubbed “Dr. Swamp Gas,” demonstrated to “Blue Book’s tame professor” that there was a “backlash of public sentiment.” For the first time, Hynek said, he became aware that “the tide was slowly turning.” Hynek said that two factions definitely existed in Project Blue Book.

There were those individuals who were extremely concerned over the radar trackings and the close approaches made by UFOs to civilian and military aircraft. These investigators assumed that the pilots were being truthful and were not concocting weird tales. These open-minded Blue Book personnel wanted to check all the possibilities. But most of the top brass, Hynek commented, couldn’t understand for a split second why any of their colleagues would bother to take seriously the subject of UFOs. In what would become an often-quoted observation, Hynek said, “Scientists in the year 2066 may think us very naive in our denials.”

Britain has its own group of people similar to Hynek. Nick Pope was a civil servant who worked for the Ministry of Defence. His role was to respond to questions from the public about UFOs. During the course of his work, he uncovered enough fascinating information to write his own books about unexplained phenomenon. Other investigators believe what Pope has been privy too is merely the tip of the iceberg, and some quite extraordinary files concerning the issue of UFOs have been uncovered. One collection entitled ‘UFO Policy’ features a six-page document from 1960 which states that any unauthorised information disclosures would be viewed as breaches of the Official Secrets Act. The Ministry of Defence official policy states that it does not investigate UFO sightings unless they are of ‘defence significance’. Despite impressive proof or terrifying witness accounts, the authorities at the Ministry of Defence continually rule that each incident has no importance to national security. At least that is the public position, and what happens behind the scenes is unknown.

Of the unexplained UFO incidents, the official statement is: “The description of the object or its motion cannot be correlated with any known object or phenomenon.” On the basis of Blue Book reports, therefore, the air force concluded:

1. No UFO has ever given any indication of threat to the national security.
2. There is no evidence that UFOs represent technological developments or principles beyond present-day scientific knowledge.
3. There is no evidence that any UFOs are “extraterrestrial vehicles.”

The transfer of the responsibility of UFO research to the University of Colorado in 1969 served to terminate the air force’s official involvement in the UFO mystery, but the residue of suspicions and outright accusations of government cover-up and censorship has never been dissipated. By the time Project Blue Book ended, it had collected 12,618 UFO reports (other sources said over 13,000 sightings) and concluded that most of them were misidentifications of natural phenomena (clouds, stars, et cetera) or conventional aircraft. A few were considered hoaxes. 701 of the reports — about six percent — were classified as unknowns, defying detailed analysis.

The UFO reports were archived and are available under the Freedom of Information Act, but names and other personal information of all witnesses have been redacted. The American Constitution and Freedom of Information Act is designed to let the public know what is actually happening. In 1980, however, a group called ‘Citizens Against Unidentified Flying Objects Secrecy’ sued the National Security Agency. It wanted the NSA to open its files on 239 UFO incidents but the authorities argued that to do so would damage US national safety. In recent years a ruling changing the classification status of documents has meant many of these reports will finally be put in the public domain. One cannot help but feel that any truly amazing official papers that may cause public hysteria will be suppressed.

Though many accepted Blue Book's final conclusions that there was nothing extraordinary about UFOs, critics — then and now — have charged that Blue Book, especially in its later years, was engaging in dubious research, or even perpetuating a cover up of UFO evidence. Some evidence suggests that not only did some UFO reports bypass Blue Book entirely, but that the U.S. Air Force continued collecting and studying UFO reports after Blue Book had been discontinued, despite official claims to the contrary. Are US governments hiding the truth from their people, or is there really nothing to report? It is a question to which we may never have a definite answer.